The question “what is theory?” has been central to the project of the humanities and social sciences since their modern beginnings, and has always been both a “theoretical” and a “critical” question.
The Neighbor: Three Inquiries in Political Theology, by Slavoj Zizek, Eric Santner, and Kenneth Reinhard. University of Chicago Press, 2005.
Lacan’s comments on the Decalogue in Seminar VII: The Ethics of Psychoanalysis generate a theory of subjectivity under monotheism.
In the Star of Redemption, the German-Jewish philosopher Franz Rosenzweig presents a model of Judaism and Christianity as dual universalisms, with distinctive projects, sometimes at odds, even hostile with each other, but each with its own logic of the universal. Bringing Rosenzweig into dialogue with the very different projects of Jacques Lacan and Alain Badiou, we might call these modalities the Christian All and the Jewish not-all.